Kings and Chronicles
The Books of Kings
The First and Second Books of Kings, originally only one book in the Hebrew canon, contain the history from David's death and Solomon's accession to the destruction of the kingdom of Judah and the desolation of Jerusalem, with a supplemental notice of an event that occurred after an interval of twenty-six years--the liberation of Jehoiachin from his prison at Babylon--and a still further extension to Jehoiachin's death, which was probably not long after his liberation. The history, therefore, comprehends the whole time of the Israelitish monarchy, exclusive of the reigns of Saul and David.
The books were supposed to have been compiled and written during the period of captivity, probably after the twenty-sixth year, by the prophet Jeremiah, using a series of state annals for both the kingdom of Judah and that of Israel. In addition to these national annals, works of separate prophets who lived in Judah and Israel would have been available to the author during that time.
The Books of Chronicles
The First and Second Books of Chronicles was the name originally given to the record made by the appointed historiographers in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. In the LXX. these books are called Paralipomena (things omitted), which is understood as meaning that they are supplementary to the Books of Kings.
It is believed that these books were for the most part compiled by Ezra in order to record the genealogical distribution of the lands, which were a vital point of the Jewish economy. Another goal would have been to maintain the temple services at Jerusalem. Zerubbabel, and after him Ezra and Nehemiah, labored to restore the worship of God among the people, and to re-infuse something of national life and spirit into their hearts. A compendious history of the kingdom of David, its prosperity under God; the sins that led to its overthrow; and its captivity and return, aided these designs.
The first Book of Chronicles contains the sacred history by genealogies from the Creation to David, including an account of David's reign. The second book continues the story by giving the history of the kings of Judah, without those of Israel, down to the return from captivity.
Both Kings and Chronicles appear to have drawn from the same documents, which were used to preserve the genealogies of the tribes and families in Israel and Judah.